Latin roots

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Scientific nomenclature is an attempt to name objects without ambiguity and Latin offers many advantages. As the voice of the Roman empire, Latin was in widespread use among scientists of early modern Europe. Its linguistic precision provides rules for the formation of new vocabulary, filling a vacuum created by the explosion of scientific knowledge from the Renaissance through the 19th century. The language of ancient Rome, therefore, allows us to speak of modern inventions such as digital satellite television channels (in the rubric for these first two paragraphs, all words printed in italics possess Latin origins).

Latin provides the binomial nomenclature for every species on earth, so that the animal referred to as chien, Hund, perro, 狗, σκύλος, собака, كلب or dog has one official name: Canis lupus familiaris. Carl von Linné (known as Carolus Linnaeus at a time when everything in science was given a Latin name) even flattered our own species with the name Homo sapiens ("wise human"). While modern science has begun shifting to other sources for naming molecules (such as the "pikachurin" protein or "sonic hedgehog" gene), the extensive use of Latin in medicine and law has given immortality to the language of Ceasar.

The following word lists include many examples from science and the humanities that come to us from Latin, often via French. Parallel lists of Greek and Semitic roots are also available. Return to Science for additional interdisciplinary resources.


A a

Root Stem Meaning Examples
ab ab- away from absent, abdicate, abduct, abdomen, abscess, abhor, ablation, abolish, abominable, abnormal, abort, ab ovo, absorb, abstract, abundant, ebb
acus ac- needle, sharp, acid acid, acidophile, acrid, acrimony, acerbic, acetate, acetic, acetabulum, acetone, acute, acuity, acumen, acupuncture, acanthocyte, acyl, ague, exacerbate
ad ad- toward at, add, addenda, addiction, adduction, adhesive, adsorb, adjacent, adjunct, adjuvant, admit, ad lib, ad hoc, ad nauseam, ad infinitum, ad hominem, cephalad, caudad
agō agi- drive, act act, action, agenda, agent, agile, agitate, ambiguous, coagulate, reaction, exact, transaction, strategy, pellagra, podagra
āla ala- wing ala, alar, alisphenoid, aliferous, alinotum, aisle
albus alba- white, bright alba, albino, albinism, albumen, albumin, album, albedo
almus aliment- nourishing aliment, alimentary, alma mater, altricial, alimony, alumnus
altus alti- high alto, altitude, altimeter, altostratus, exalt, old, haut
alveus alveo- hollow, cavity alveolus, alveoli, alveolar, alveolation, alveolingual, labialveolar
ambō ambi- both, two ambiguous, ambivalent, ambidextrous
ambulō ambu- walk ambulate, ambulatory, ambition, ambulance, amble, funambulist, preamble, perambulate, somnambulism, ombudsman
ammōn ammon- salts from Amun's temple ammonia, ammonium, ammoniacal, ammonite, amine, amino acid, vitamin, amide, amen
amplūs ampli- large, abundant amplitude, ample, amplifier
ampulla ampul- two-handled flask ampulla, ampullary, ampule
amylum amyl- milled grain, meal, starch amylum, amylase, amylose, amylopectin, amyloplast, amyloid, amyl, paramylon, malt, maltose, meal, mill
angō ang- choke, strangle anger, anguish, anxious, anxiety, angina, strangle, strangulation, angst
angulus angul- corner angle, angular, anglophile, England, English, triangle
anima anima- breath, spirit, mind anima, animus, animal, animate, anime, animism, animosity, equanimity, magnanimous, pusillanimous, unanimous
annus annu- year annals, annual, annuity, millennium, perennial, centennial, anno domini, annus horribilis, annus mirabilis
ānsa ansa- jug handle ansa cervicalis, ansa lenticularis, ansate, ansulary
ānser anser- goose anserous, pes anserinus, anserine
ante ante- before, in front ante, anterior, antenatal, ante meridiem, antecubital, antebellum, antecedent, antique, antler, ancient, advance
ānulus ano- ring anus, anal, anorectal, annulus, annelid
apex apica- tip, summit apex, apical, subapical, periapical
aqua aqua- water aqua, aqua vitae, aqua regia, aquatic, aquarelle, aqualung, aqueous, aquarium, aquarius, aqueduct, aquifer, aquamarine
arabicus arab-, ribo- gum arabic arabic, arabinose, ribose, ribosome, ribozyme, riboflavin, ribonucleic, deoxyribose
arbor arbor- tree, mast arbor vitae, arboreal, arborization, arborescence, arboretum
arcus arc- bow, rainbow, arch arc, arch, archery, arcade, arcuate
ārea are- site, open space area, areola, areolate, hectare
argenteus argo- silver argent, argil, Argentina, arginine, argonaut, argument, hydrargyrum
arma arm- weapons, arms arm, armature, armada, armor, army, armillary, armadillo, alarm, disarm, firearms, coat of arms, gendarme, underarm
articulus artic- joint, knuckle article, articulate, articulation, disarticulated, inarticulate, interarticular, polyarticular, monoarticular
ātrium atrium hall, central room atrium, atria, atrial, atriopore, atrioventricular, sinoatrial
audiō aud- hear, listen audio, audible, audience, audiophile, audit, auditorium, auditory, audition, auricle, auscultation, scout, oyez, obey
aurum aurum gold aura, aurum, aureate, auric, aurous, aurora, aureole
auster austral- south, south wind australia, austria, australopithecus, eastern, easter, east
avis avi- bird, omen avian, aviary, aviation, avifauna, auspice, auspicious, rara avis, calcar avis
axis axi- axis, pivot axis, axle, axial, axil, axilla, axillary, coaxial

B b

Root Stem Meaning Examples
baculum bacillu- stick, staff bacillus, bacilli, bacillum, bacillary, baculiform, baguette, bagel, debacle, imbecile, lactobacillus
barbarus barba- foreign, bearded barb, barbed wire, barber, barbarian, barbarous, barbule
bīlis bili- bile, gall, anger bile, biliary, bilious, bilirubin, biliverdin, stercobilin, urobilinogen
bis bi- twice, double binary, bilateral, bifurcation, biped, binomial, bisect, bicarbonate, bisexual, bipolar, combine, billion, bit, byte, megabyte
bōs bo-, bu- cow, ox bos, bovine, bucolic, osso buco, buccaneer, butter, butyric, butane
bracchium brachi- arm, forearm brace, bracelet, bracket, embrace, brachial, brachiation, brachiocephalic, brachiopod, brachiosaur, brassiere, pretzel, antebrachial
brevis brevi- short, brief brevity, brief, abridge, abbreviation, vita brevis
bucca bucca- cheek, mouth buccal, buccinator, boca, buckle, bugle
bulla bulla- bubble, knob bull, bulla, bullous, bulliform, ebullient, abulia, bullion, boil, bubble
bursa bursa- purse, bag bursa, bursitis, bursar, disburse, reimburse

C c

Root Stem Meaning Examples
cadō cade- fall, die cadence, casualty, cadaver, suicide, pesticide, regicide, deciduous, decadence, decay, accident, occident, incident, casual, case, chance, chute, occasion, recidivism
caecus caeca- blind, obscure cecum, cecal, cecograph, caecilian
calculus calc- pebble, stone calcaneus, calcium, calcify, calculus, calculate, cholecalciferol, incalculable, miscalculate, nephrocalcinosis
callum callo- hard or thick skin callus, callous, callosal, corpus callosum
calor calo- warmth, heat calenture, calorie, calorimeter, calorific, decalescence, cauldron, scald
camera camera- arched roof, chamber camera, chamber, unicameral, bicameral
canālis canal- pipe, canal canal, canaliculi, cannula, cannulation, channel, sugarcane, cane, cannon, cannister, can, recanalize
cancellī cancel- latticework, cross bars cancel, cancellation, cancellous, chancel, chancellor
cancer cancre- crab, ulceration cancer, chancre, chancroid, canker
candidus candida- white, bright candid, candor, candle, candida, candidate, candidiasis, incandescence, incendiary, incense
canis cani- dog canis, canine, canary, canicular, chenille, kennel, cave canem
capiō capt- take, seize, capture capture, catch, capacious, capable, capstan, accept, anticipate, conceive, deception, except, forceps, inception, intercept, intussusception, participate, precept, receive, recipe, rx
capra capri- goat, frisky capris, caprine, caproic, caprylic, capricorn, caprice, capricious, caprolactam
capsula capsu- small box capsid, capsule, capsular, encapsulate, capsicum, capsaicin, case, cash
caput capit-, -ceps head caput, captain, capital, capitol, capitulate, capitate, capitellum, capo, caprice, cattle, chapter, chief, occiput, occipital, decapitate, bicipital, biceps, triceps, recapitulate, precipitate, per capita
carbō carb- charcoal, embers carbon, carboxylic, carbohydrate, carbonate, bicarbonate, carbide, carbolic, carbuncle, carburetor, hydrocarbon
carīna carina- keel of a ship carina, carinatum, careen
carō carni-, cari- flesh, meat, decay carnal, carnage, carnivore, carnassial, carnival, incarnate, reincarnation, charnel, crone, caries, carious, carrion, carcass
cāseus case- cheese casein, caseous, caseating, cheese, cheesy
cauda cauda- tail cauda, caudad, caudal, caudate, cauda equina, coda
cavus cava- hollow, concave cave, cava, cavern, cavity, cavitation, concave, excavate, portocaval
cēdō cede- go, withdraw, depart cease, cede, cession, abscess, access, ancestor, antecedent, concede, deceased, exceed, intercede, necessary, precede, predecessor, proceed, recede, secede, succeed
celeris celera- swift, fast acceleration, accelerant, celerity, decelerate
cella cell- granary, small room, cell cell, cellar, cellular, cellulose, cellophane, cellmate, micelle, conceal, rathskeller
centum cent- one hundred cent, cental, centavo, centum, century, centenary, centennial, centimeter, centegenarian, percent, bicentennial
cerebrum cerebr- brain, understanding cerebrum, cerebral, cerebritis, cerebellum, cerebrospinal, cerebroside, decerebrate
cervīx cervi- neck cervix, cervical, buccocervical, endocervicitis
cilium cili- eyelash cilium, cilia, ciliated, ciliary, ciliophora, superciliary, supercilious
cingō, cingere cinct- enclose, gird, bind cinch, cincture, cingulum, enceinte, precinct, shingles, succinct
circā circa- around, round about circumference, circulation, circle, circuit, circa, circumscribe, circumcise, cerclage
citō, citāre cite- set in motion, rouse cite, citation, excite, incite, resuscitate, solicitous
cīvitās civi- citizenship, city city, citizen, civic, civil, civility, civilization
claudō, claudere claus- shut, close, block claustrophobia, claustrum, cloister, claudication, occlude, occlusion, occlusal, malocclusion, include, inclusive, exclude, exclusion, close, enclosed, Claudius
clāvis clavi- key clavicle, clavicular, subclavian, clavichord, autoclave, clavier, clavioline, enclave, conclave
clīvus clivu- slope clivus, proclivity, postclival
cloāca cloaca- sewer, drain cloaca, cloacal
coeō, coīre co- meet together coalesce, coalition, coaxial, coherent, coincidence, correlation, coworker, coefficient, coordinate
colō cultu- cultivate culture, cultivation, cultivar, cult, colony, colonize, cologne, incult, silvicolous, kulturkampf
collis colli- hill colliculus
collum colla- neck collar, accolade, torticollis, decolletage, decollation
columna column- column, pillar column, columnar, colonnade, colonel, culminate
commūnis commi- common, universal common, commune, community, commissure, committee, communication, communism
contrā contra- opposite, against contrast, contrary, contralateral, counterintuitive, counterclockwise, country, encounter
cōpia copi- abudance copious, copier, copy, cornucopia
coquō coct- cook, ripen cook, cuisine, apricot, biscuit, concoction, precocious, ricotta, terra cotta, cottage cheese
cor corda- heart cordate, cordial, courage, accord, concord, discord, record, precordial, misericord
cornū cornu- horn, horny corn, cornea, corneum, corner, cornet, cornucopia, capricorn, unicorn, bicornuate, horn
corōna corona- garland, crown corona, coronation, coronary, coroner, coronet, corolla, corollary
corpus corpu- body corps, corpse, corpus delicti, habeas corpus, corpulent, corpuscle, corporation, corporeal, incorporate, corsage
cortex cortica- bark, shell cortex, cortical, cortisol, subcortical, neocortex, decorticate
costa costa- rib, side costal, costate, costophrenic, coast, cutlet, accost, sternocostal, intercostal, ecostate
crepō crepitu- rattle, creek, snap crepitus, crepitation, decrepit
crescō cresce- arise, be born, grow create, creature, crescent, crescendo, accretion, accrue, concrete, increase, decrease, increment, decrement, excrescence, recruit, procreation, cereal
crūs crura- leg, shin crus, crura, crural, subcrural, tinea cruris
crūsta crusta- hard surface, shell crust, crustacean, crustose, encrusted, crouton
crux cruci- gallows, cross crux, crucial, cruciate, crucify, crucifer, crucifixion, cruciform, cruciverbalist, excruciating
cubō cubi-, cumb- lie in bed, recline cubit, antecubital, decubitus, incubate, incubation, incubus, succubus, recumbent, incumbent, succumb, accumbens
culex -cule, -cle gnat, little thing animalcule, cubicle, corpuscle, muscle, molecule, follicle, ridicule, saccule, particle, ossicle, homonculus, tubercle, ventricle
cumulus cumu- heap, mass, pile cumulate, cumulative, cumulus, accumulate, encumber, cumbersome
cuneus cune- wedge cuneus, cuneiform, cuneate
cūra cura- care, concern cure, curator, accurate, accuracy, sinecure
cursor curso- runner, racer cursor, cursorial, cursive, cursory, current, curriculum, courier, course, corral, corridor, currency, recurrent, excurrent, occur, concur, concurrent, concourse, intercourse, precursor
curvus curva- bent, curved, crooked curve, curvature, curvilinear, curvaceous, curb
cuspis cusp- lance point cusp, bicuspid, tricuspid
quassō cussi- shake, disturb quash, squash, cascara, cascabel, incus, percussion, percussive, concussion, repercussion, succussion, discuss
cutis cuta- skin cutaneous, cuticle, cutis, subcutaneous

D d

Root Stem Meaning Examples
dō, dare data- give, given dare, date, datum, data, dado, die, dice, addition, edition, tradition, render, surrender
de- down from descend, defect, define, denominator, decrease, deduce, deposit
decem deci- ten, tenth december, decimeter, decimate, decibel, decimal, decussation, dime, dean, doyenne, duodenum, hexadecimal
dēleō dele- destroy delete, deleterious, deletion
dēns denti- tooth dens, dental, dentin, dentate, denticle, dentist, dentition, edentate, edentulous, indent, indenture, trident, dandelion
dēnsus densi- thick, close dense, density, densitometry, condenser, condensation, radiodensity
dexter dextro- right-hand, skillful dexterity, dextrose, dextrorotatory, ambidextrous, maltodextrin, dextromethorphan
dīcō dicta- say, pronounce dictum, dictation, dictator, dictionary, ditto, ditty, edict, benediction, valedictorian, predict, contradict, addiction, jurisdiction, indict, verdict
diēs dia- day dial, diary, diet, diurnal, circadian, adjourn, journal, journey, meridian, postmeridian, quotidian
digitus digit- finger, toe digit, digital, digitize, digitalis, digoxin, interdigitate, indicate, index, prestidigitation
distō dista- be apart, distant distance, distal, equidistant, pars distalis
dīvīsus divi- separate, division divide, divisum, division, dividend, divisor, divisive, divisible, indivisible
dolor dolo- pain, sorrow dole, dolorous, doleful, condolence, indolent
domus domo- house, home dome, domestic, domain, dominion, dominate, domino, dungeon, madame, madonna, majordomo
dōnum dona- gift, offering donate, donor, condone, pardon, endow, dowry
dormiō dormi- sleep dormitory, dormitive
dorsum dorsa- back, ridge dorsal, dorsum, endorse, torso, do-se-do
dūcō duct- lead, guide duct, ductile, duke, duchess, abduct, abducens, adductor, oviduct, deduce, introduce, transducer, induce, seduce, produce, product, reduction
duo duo- two dual, duality, duet, duplex, duplicate, deuce, duodecimal, double
duodecim duode- twelve duodecimal, duodenum, duodenostomy, duodenectomy, duodenitis, dozen, hepatoduodenal
dūrus dura- hard, tough dura, durum, durable, duration, during, duress, dour, endure, epidural, subdural, induration, obdurate

E e

Root Stem Meaning Examples
ē e- out of efferent, egress, eccentric, egestion, elicit, eliminate, edentulous
aequus equi- level, equal equilateral, equal, equivalent, equator, equation, equilibrium, equinox, inequality
equus equu- horse equus, equid, equine, equestrian, equitant, equisetum, equiline, cauda equina
esse esse- to be essence, essential, absent, presence, quintessential, entity
ex ex- out, off, from exit, exile, external, extrinsic, excretion, excrement, expire, expiration, ex libris, ex officio
extrā extra- outside, beyond extracellular, extravasation, extraneous, extrapolate, extreme

F f

Root Stem Meaning Examples
fābula fabu- story, fable, speech fable, fabulous, fate, affable, ineffable, infant, confabulate, preface
faciēs faci- form, face, aspect face, facies, facial, facet, multifaceted, prima facie
faciō fact- make, create fact, factor, factorial, factitious, faculty, facultative, facile, feasible, difficult, fax, infection, affect, effect, artifact, artificial, abortifacient, malefactor, manufacture, defective, deficient, sufficient, confection
faecis fecu- sedimen, dregs, feces feces, fecal, feculent, fecalith
falx falci- sickle, scythe falx, falciform, falcate, falcon, falconry, falciparum
farciō farci- stuff, fatten farce, farcical, infarct, infarction
fascis fasci- bundle, band fascia, fascicle, fasciola, fasciitis, fascism
faucēs fauci- throat, channel fauces, faucial, faucitis, faucet, suffocate
febris febri- fever febrile, antifebrin, afebrile
fēlis feli- cat felis, feline, felidae
fēmina femini- woman female, feminine, feminization, effeminate
fenestra fenestra- window fenestrate, fenestration, fenestrule, defenestrate
fera fera- wild beast feral, ferocious, fierce
ferō -fer carry, bring ferret, suffer, offer, circumference, difference, reference, infer, transfer, proliferate, afferent, efferent, differential, lactiferous, seminiferous, vociferous
ferrum ferru- iron, sword ferric, ferrous, ferrule, ferromagnetic, transferrin, ferritin, farrier, ferredoxin
fervēns ferve- hot, boiling, leavening fervent, fervor, effervesce, defervescence, ferment, fermented, fermentation
fētus fetu- newborn, unborn young fetus, fetal, fetation, effete, multifetation, fawn
fibra fibri- fibers, entrails fiber, fibril, fibrin, fibrinogen, microfibril, neurofibromatosis
fībula fibula- clasp, fastener fibula, fibular, fix, prefix, suffix, transfix, microfiche
figūra figura- form, shape figure, figurate, disfigure, configuration, prefigure, transfigure, feign, fiction, figment, effigy
fīlum fili- thread file, filament, filaria, filiform, filum, filopodia, fillet, profile
fimbriae fimbri- fringe, ends fimbriae, fimbriated
fīnis fini- end, boundary finish, final, finite, infinity, infinitesimal, define, definite, definition
fissum fissu- cleft, fissure fissile, fission, fissure, fissural, fissipedia, bifid, pentafid
fistula fistula- tube, pipe, hole fistula, fistular, fistulous
flagellum flagella- whip flagellum, flagella, flagellation, flagellin, choanoflagellate, dinoflagellate
flātus flatu- breath, blowing, wind flatus, flatulence, inflation, insufflation, deflate, souffle, flavor, blast, bladder, blather
flāvus flavi- yellow flavin, flavone, flavoprotein, riboflavin, bleach, blonde, blue
flectō flex- bend, turn flexure, flexion, flexible, circumflex, reflex, reflection, inflection, genuflect
flōra flora- flowers, flowering flora, floral, florist, florid, florida, inflorescence, flower, cauliflower
fluō fluo- flow flux, flow, fluid, fluxion, fluorine, fluorescent, fluoroscopy, fluctuate, reflux, confluence, effluent, affluent, superfluous, mellifluous, influenza
focus foca- hearth, fireplace, home focal, focus, foci, bifocal, confocal, matrifocal, parfocal
folium foli- leaf folium, foliage, folio, folic, folate, portfolio, defoliate, exfoliate, trefoil
follis folli- bellows, air bag follicle, follicular, follliculitis, folly, fool
forāmen foramina- hole, opening foramen, foramina, foraminal, foraminifera
fōrma forma- shape, form form, formal, formula, cruciform, deformity, uniform, transform
formīca formica- ant formic, formicide, formica, formaldehyde, metformin
fornix forni- arch, vault, brothel fornax, fornix, fornices, fornicate, furnace
fortis forti- strong, sturdy force, fort, forte, fortissimo, fortify, fortitude, fortress, comfort, effort, enforce
fossa fosso- ditch, trench fossa, fossil, fossorial
fovea fovea- pit, pitfall foveal, fovea
fractus fractu- broken, crushed fraction, fracture, fractious, fragile, fragment, frail, frangible, fractal, infringe, defray, diffraction, refraction, refractory, saxifrage, septifragal, suffrage
frāter frater- brother fraternal, friar, fraternity, fratricide
frēnum frenu- bridle, bit, rein frenum, frenate, frenulum, refrain
frōns fronta- front, forehead, brow front, frontal, frontier, affront, bifrontal, confrontation, forefront, storefront
frūctus fructi- fruit, produce, revenue fructose, frugivore, fructescence, fructiferous, fruit
fugiō fuga- flee, escape fugue, fugitive, refugee, centrifuge, centifugal, nucleofugal, lucifugus, tempus fugit
functus functi- performed, acted on function, functional, defunct, perfunctory
fundus fundo- foundation, bowl, poured fund, fundus, fundic, foundation, foundry, profound, profundus, refund, infundibulum
fungus fungi- mushroom, fungus fungus, fungi, fungiform, fungivore, antifungal
furca furca- fork furcula, bifurcate, trifurcation
fūsiō fusio- outpouring, leakage fusion, diffusion, infuse, infusoria, transfusion, perfusion, confusion, futile

G g

Root Stem Meaning Examples
gallus galli- rooster, chicken galline, galliform, gallium, crista galli
gelō gel- freeze, gel gel, gelatin, gelation, gelato, congeal, jelly, glacial, glacier
genū genu- knee genu, genuflect, geniculate
genus gene- birth, race, people, kind genus, genre, genera, generate, generalization, genetics, genital, gender, genocide, genome, transgenic, progeny, progenitor, degenerate, indigenous, congenital, benign, malignant, pregnant
germen germ- bud, sprout, embryo germ, germinate, germicide, germinal, germane, dysgerminoma
gestum gesta- carried gesture, gesticulate, gestation, res gestae, progesterone, ingest, digest, congestion, suggest, exaggerate
gingīva gingiva- gums gingivitis, gingival
glāns gland- acorn, nut, node, gland glans, gland, glander, glandular
globus globo- ball, globe globus, globe, global, globular, hemoglobin
glomus glomu- ball of yarn, tangle glomus, glomerulus, glomerulonephritis, agglomerate, conglomerate,
glūten glutin- glue gluten, glutinous, glutamine, glutamate, agglutinin, hemagglutinin
gracilis gracili- slender, slight gracilis, gracile
gradus gradu- step, pace, stair grade, gradient, graduation, gressorial, degree, centigrade, plantigrade, digitigrade, retrograde, progress, regression, aggressive, congress, digression
grāmen grana- grass, herb, grain granum, grain, granary, granular, granulation, granuloma, granite, grenade, pomegranate, kernel, corn, granola
gravis gravi- heavy, loaded, pregnant grave, gravid, gravity, gravitas, gravimetric, aggravate, grief, grieve, primigravida, multigravida
grex grega- flock, herd, troop gregarious, aggregate, congregate, egregious, segregate
grossus gross- large, thick, fat gross, grossen, grossly
gula gula- throat, gullet gular, gullet, gulous, glut, glutton, deglutition, gargoyle, gargle, gurgle, regurgitate
gutta gusta- drop, taste, exude gut, guttae, gutta percha, guttation, gutter, guttural, gustation, gusto, disgusting, ragout

H h

Root Stem Meaning Examples
habitō habitu- inhabit, live habitus, habit, habituate, inhabited, inhibit, prohibit
haereō hesi- cling, stick, adhere hesitate, inherent, adhesive, adherent, adhesion, cohesion
hālitus hale- breath, vapor hale, halitosis, exhale, inhale, inhalant, inhalation
hallux halluci- big toe, wandered astray hallux, hallucis, hallucination, hallucinogen
hāmus hamato- hook, talon hamate, hamulus, hamiform
herba herbi- new growth, plant, shoot herb, herbal, herbaria, herbivore, herbaceous, herbicide
hiātus hiatu- opening, gap, break hiatus, hiatal, dehiscence, indehiscent
hīlum hila- something, little bit hilum, hilar, nil, nihilism, annihilate
homō homi- human, man homo, homicide, homage, hominid, homunculus, hombre, bonhomie, human, humane, humanities
hospitium hospi- hospitality, lodging hospital, hospitality, hospice, host, hostage, hostel
humō humu- bury, bring down humus, exhume, humility, humble

I i

Root Stem Meaning Examples
ictus icta- stroke, blow, seizure ictus, ictal, post ictal
īlium ile-, ili- flank, loin, intestine ileum, ileocolic, ileitis, ileus, ilium, iliac, iliopsoas, sacroiliac
index indica- forefinger, pointer index, indicate, indices
īnferus infero- below, underneath, underworld inferior, inferolateral, infernal, inferno, infrared, infrasonic
inguen inguina- groin inguinal
īnsula insula- island insula, insulin, insulinoma, insulation, peninsula
integer integra- whole, intact, unbiased integer, integrate, integral, integrity, entire
inter inter- between internal, interval, interior, intermediate, international, intercellular, interquartile, interpolate, intersection
intimus intima- innermost, deepest intima, intimal, intimate
intrā intra- inside, within intracellular, intraoperative, intrinsic, introspection, introduce
ipse ipsi- self, very same ipsilateral, ipse dixit, ipso facto, ipsative, ipsographic
itum -it went exit, obituary, circuit, introit, coitus, transit
iterum itera- again, repeat iterate, iterative, iteration, reiterate
iactō ject- throw, cast jaculatory, ejaculate, project, projection, projectile, reject, conjecture, inject, subject, eject, trajectory, alea iacta est
iēiūnus jejun- fasting, hungry jejunum, jejunal, jejune, jejunostomy
iugum juga- yoke, collar, union jugular, jugum, conjugate, subjugate, yoke, yoga
iungō junctio- join, mate joint, disjoint, juncture, junction, conjunction
iūris juri- of the law, justice jury, jurist, jurisprudence, justice, conjure, injury, jurisdiction, perjury
iuvenis juveni- young, youth junior, juvenile, rejuvenate
iuxtā juxta- near, close juxtaglomerular, juxtapose, juxtaposition, adjust, joust

L l

Root Stem Meaning Examples
labia labio- lip, slip labia, labial, labrum, labile, lability, lapse, collapse
lacrimō lacrima- weep, cry lacrimal, lachrymose, nasolacrimal
lactō lacti- suckle, nurse, milk lactose, lactase, lactic, lactam, lactone, lactiferous, lactation, lacteal, prolactin, lettuce
lacūna lacuna- hole, pit, deficiency lacuna, lacunae, lacunose
lāmina lamina- layer, plate laminate, laminar, laminectomy, lamella, lamellae, trilaminar
larva larva- ghost, mask larva, larval, larvae
lātus lati- broad, wide, carried latent, lateral, bilateral, latissimus, contralateral, dilate, elation, relate, translate, ablation, prolate, oblate, translate, legislate, superlative
laxus laxa- loose, free, easy lax, laxative, relax, laissez-faire
legō lectio- gather, read, choose lex, lexicon, lectern, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson, lectin, collect, dyslexia, diligent, election, intelligent, intellect, neglect, selection
lēx legi- law, rule, contract legal, legislate, legitimate, lex, loyal, privilege
lēns lento- lentil lens, lenticel, lenticulate, lenticular, lentil
levis leva- light, lifted up leaven, levity, lever, levator, levitation, alleviate, elevate, relieve
laevus levo- left, awkward, unlucky levorotatory, levodopa, levulose, levonorgestrel
libīdō libidi- desire, passion ad lib, libido, libidinous
ligō liga- tie up, bind ligate, ligature, ligament, lien, liable, ligase, obligation, religion, rely
lignum ligno- wood, timber lignin, ligneous, lignite, lignivorous
līmen limi- threshold, edge limit, liminal, limb, limbic, limbus, subliminal, supraliminal, eliminate
līneus line- flax, linen, thread line, linea, linear, lineage, linen, linoleic, linoleum, delineate, linseed, lint, crinoline
lingua lingu- tongue, speech, language lingual, lingular, linguist, linguistics, linguoversion, linguini, lingo, language, bilingual, fissilingual
liquidus liqu- fluid, liquid, flowing liquid, liquor, liquefaction, colliquation
littera litera- letter of the alphabet literal, literary, literacy, literature
lītus littora- seashore, beach littoral, sublittoral
locus loca- place, site, location locus, loci, locate, local, loculated, locomotion, translocation
longus longi- long, vast long, longitude, longevity, elongate, oblong, prolong, length
loquor loqu- speak, talk loquacious, locution, soliloquy, colloquium, grandiloquence, interlocutor, pectoriloquy, ventriloquist, elocution
lūx luci- light, glory lux, luxury, lucid, lucifer, luciferin, luciferase, elucidate, noctilucent, radiolucent, sonolucent, translucent, pellucidum, luster, illustrious, illustrate
lūdō ludi- play, frolic ludicrous, ludic, allude, collude, delude, elude, illusion, interlude, prelude, quaalude
lumbōrum lumbo- loins lumbar, lumbosacral, lumbago
lumbrīcus lumbrica- worm lumbrical, lumbricoid, lumbricus
lūmen lumina- light, eye lumen, lumina, luminous, luminosity, illuminate, transillumination
lūna luna- moon, crescent luna, lunar, lunula, lunate, semilunar, lunatic, loony
lupus lupo- wolf lupus, lupine, lobo
lūteus lute- yellow, orange luteum, luteal, lutein
lympha lympho- water, lymph lymph, limpid, lymphatic, lymphocyte, lymphoma, lymphocyte, lymphadenopathy, lymphangiogram, endolymph, perilymph

M m

Root Stem Meaning Examples
macula macula- spot, stain macule, macula, macular, maculopapular, immaculate
magnus magna- great, large magnus, magna cum laude, magnate, magnify, magnitude, magnificent, almagest, magistrate, major, majority, master, mister, maximum, max
māla mala- cheek, jaw malar, maxilla, maxillary, maxilliped, premaxilla
male mali- bad, evil malaria, malicious, malign, malignant, malevolent, malinger, malfeasance, maladjusted, malediction, malocclusion, malpractice
malleus malle- hammer malleus, malleable, malleolus, malleolar, mallet, maul, pall mall
mamma mamma- breast, teat mammal, mammary, mammillary, mammogram, mammalogist, mama
manus manu- hand manus, manacle, manage, manner, manual, manipulate, manubrium, manicure, manufacture, manuscript, manicotti, manifest, manumit, manure, amanuensis, emancipate, mandate, command, demand
margō marca- border, margin mark, margin, marginal, emarginate, demarcation
mare mari- sea marine, maritime, marinara, mariculture, ultramarine, mermaid, marsh
mars marti- war, conflict mars, martial, martian, march, mardi gras
mās masculi- manly, masculine masculine, emasculate, male, macho, machismo
māter mater- mother, womb alma mater, maternal, maternity, matron, matrix, matrices, matriculate, matriarch, matricide, matrilocal, mother, material, matter
meātus meatu- passage, course meatus, meatal, meander, permeate, permeable
medius media- middle, midst medium, media, medial, median, mediastinum, mediation, medieval, mediocre, mediterranean, meridian, moiety, mean, intermediate, mid, middle
medicō medica- cure, heal medicine, medical, mediate, remedy, paramedic, biomedical
medulla medull- marrow, pith medulla, medullary
mellītus melli- honeyed, sweet melody, melodious, melliferous, mellivorous, mellifluous, diabetes mellitus, molasses, marmalade, mead
memoria memo- memory, history memory, memorial, memorandum, memo, memorable, commemorate
mēns menta- mind, understanding mental, mentation, mention, non compos mentis, dementia, demented, memento, comment
mentum mentu- chin, prominence mentum, submental, omentum, prominent, menace, amenable, promenade, eminent, imminent
mereō meri- deserve, merit merit, meritorious, meretricious, emeritus, turmeric
mīlle milli- thousand mill, mile, millinery, millimeter, millefiore, millenium, million, millepore, millipede
minus minu- less, minor minor, minus, minuscule, minimum, minute, minuend, diminutive, diminish, mince
mīror mira- wonder at, be surprised miracle, mirage, annus mirabilis, admire, mirror, mirabile dictu
mixceō misci- mix, blend miscellaneous, miscible, mix, mixture, immiscible, miscegenation, promiscuous
missiō missio- send, release mission, omit, dismiss, transmission, emit
mitra mitra- turban, cross-cut miter, mitered, mitral
modus modu- measure, standard mode, modus, modal, modulus, modular, model, modern, moderate, mood
mōlēs mole- mass, bulk mole, molecule, molar, molarity
mollis molli- soft, softened, milled mollify, emollient, mollusk, malt, maltose, melt
mōnstrō monstra- show, point out, warn monitor, monster, monument, admonish, demonstrate, premonition, summon
mōns monta- mountain mons, montane, montana, ultramontane, verumontanum, promontory, mountain, amount
morbus morbi- illness, disease morbus, morbid, morbidity, morbilliform, morbillivirus
mortis mortu- death mortal, mortality, mortitian, mortuary, mortgage, moribund, amortize, immortal, murder, post mortem
mōrum moru- mulberry morula
mōtus motio- movement, impulse motion, motor, motility, mobile, mob, moment, momentum, motif, commotion, emotion, locomotion, promote, oculomotor, vasomotor, move
multus multi- many multiple, multiplication, multiplex, multitude, multivariable, multiparous
mūniō muni- fortify, strengthen munitions, municipal, ammunition, immune, immunity, immunology, immunize, immunofluorescence, immunoglobulin, autoimmune
mūrus mura- wall, defense mural, muramic acid, intramural, extramural, transmural, immurement
muria muria- brine muriate, muriatic acid
mūsculus muscu- mouse, muscle muscle, murine, muricide, musteline, muscle, muscular
mūtō muta- change, shift mutate, permutation, commuter, commutative, molt

N n

Root Stem Meaning Examples
nāsus nasa- nose nasion, nasal, nasalis, nasopharynx, naris, nares, nasturtium, pince-nez
natō nata- swim, float natatorial, natatorium, natant, supernatant
nātūra natu- birth, nature nature, natural, natrium, nascent, nation, native, naive, nee, noel, antenatal, innate, cognate, denatured, renaissance
nāvis navi- ship nave, naval, navicular, navy, navigation, circumnavigate
nebula nebu- cloud, mist nebula, nebulous, nebulizer, nevada, nimbus
nexus nectio- bond, tie nexus, adnexa, annex, connect, connection, necturus
negō nega- deny, refuse negative, negate, negation, abnegate, renegade, renege
nervus nervi- sinew, string, strength nerve, nervous, enervate, denervate
neuter neutra- neither neutral, neuter, neutrality, neutron, neutrino, neutrophil, neutropenia
nīdus nidu- nest nidus, nidal, nidamental, nidation, niche, pilonidal
niger nigro- black, dark nigrum, nigrostriatal, nigrosine, denigrate, noir
nox noctu- night nocturne, nocturnal, noctiluca, noctambulist, equinox
nōdus nodu- knot, swelling node, nodal, nodular, acnode, knot, denouement
nōmen nomina- name, title nomen, nomenclature, nominal, nomination, innominate, nominee, noun
novem nona- nine nonagenerian, nonane, nonanoic, noon, novena, november
nōrma norm- rule, norm norm, normal, normality, normocytic, normotensive, abnormal, enormous, paranormal
nota nota- mark, sign, note note, notice, notify, notation, notorious, annotate, connote, nota bene
novus nova- new, recent, unusual nova, novice, novel, novelty, innovate, renovate, supernova, novum eboracum
noxa noxa- harm, damage noxious, nocent, noise, nuisance, obnoxious, innocuous, innocent
nucleus nucle- kernel, little nut nucleus, nuclear, nucleolus, nucleosome, nucleon, nucleic, nucleotide, enucleate, ribonuclease, radionuclide, nougat, nut
nūdus nudi- nude, bare nude, nudity, nudibranch, denuded
nullus nulla- none, not at all null, nullify, nulliparous, annul
numerus numera- number, many numeral, numerous, numerator, numerical, enumerate, supernumerary, innumerable
nūntius nuncio- messenger, news nuncio, announcement, enunciate, denounce, pronounce, renounce
nūtrīx nutri- nurse, nourishment nutrix, nutrition, nutrient, nutritious, nurture, nurse, nourish

O o

Root Stem Meaning Examples
ob ob- against, toward oblate, oblique, oblong, obtuse, opposite
obstetrix obstetric- midwife obstetrix, obstetrician, obstetrical, ob-gyn
octō octo- eight octet, octant, octave, octavo, octagon, octopus, octane, octahedron, octal, october, octogenarian
oculus oculo- eye, sight oculus, ocular, oculomotor, oculogyric, oculist, extraocular, monocle, monocular, binocular, inoculate, pinochle
olea oleo- olive oleic, oleoresin, olefin, oleomargarine, indole, linoleum, petroleum, olive, oil
olfactō olfactio- sniff, smell olfaction, olfactory
omnis omni- all, every omnibus, omnivore, omniscience, omnipotent, omnidirectional
opācus opaci- shady, dark opacity, opacify, opaque
opus opera- work, output opus, opera, operate, operation, operator, operand, cooperate, op. cit., modus operandi
optō opti- choose, wish for optional, optimal, optimum, optimization
ōs, ōris ora-, os- mouth, door os, oral, oration, oratory, orifice, orotund, ostium, osculate, oscillate, oscilloscope, usher
orbis orbi- ring, orbit orb, orbital, orbit, orbiter, orbicular, orbitosphenoid
ōrdō ordina- order, series, regularity order, ordinal, ordain, ordinance, ordinary, ordinate, coordination, inordinate, subordinate
oriēns ori- east, sunrise, birth orient, origin, orientation, orienteering, oriental, abort
osus -ose full of glucose, verbose, morose, mucous, seminiferous, famous
ōvum ova- egg ova, ovum, ovary, ovule, ovulate, oviduct, oviparous, oval, mesovarium, synovial
ovis ovi- sheep ovis, ovine, ewe

P p

Root Stem Meaning Examples
pāx paci- peace pacific, pacifier, pacifist, pax Romana, pax Brittanica
palātum palato- palate, taste palate, palatine, palace, palatial, salpingopalatine, transpalatine
pallium palli- cloak, mantle pall, pallium, palliate, palliative, archipallium, neopallium
pallor pallo- paleness, fading, fear pale, pallor, pallid, appall, palomino, peliosis, poliomyelitis, poliovirus
palma palma- palm, hand, date palm palm, palmate, palmar
palpō palpi- stroke, touch palpate, palpation, palpitation, palpable, palpebral, pedipalp
pānis pans- bread, loaf pannus, panniculitis, pantry, pannier, expand, expansion
papilla papilla- nipple, breast pap, papa, papilla, papillary, papilloma
pariēs parieta- wall paries, parietal, gastroparietal, uteroparietal
pariō paro- give birth, create parous, parent, parity, parturition, parturient, multiparous, oviparous, viviparous, nulliparity, postpartum
pars parti- part, share, fraction pars, parse, part, partial, particle, partite, partition, parcel, particular, parsimony, bipartite, tripartite
parvus parvi- small, slight, little parvus et tardis, parvitude, parvocellular, parvovirus, paraffin
patēns pate- open, exposed patent, patency, patulous, patella, prepatent
pater pater- father paternal, patron, patronize, patriotic, patrician, patrimony, expatriate
patiēns pati- suffering, enduring patient, patience, passion, passive, compassion, compatible, impatient, inpatient
paucus pauci- few, little paucity, pauper, poor, poverty, poco
pectus pecto- breast, heart, feeling pectus, pectoral, pectoriloquy, expectorate, expectorant
pēs pedi- foot pes, pedal, pedicel, peduncle, pedestrian, pedicle, peduncle, biped, millipede, expedite, impede, path, peripatetic
pellō -pel push, knock pulse, push, compel, dispel, expel, impel, propel, repel
pellis pelli- skin, hide, leather pelt, pellicle, pellagra, pillion, erysipelas, peau d’orange
pelvis pelvi- basin pelvis, pelvic, hemipelvis
pendeō pendu- hang, be weighed pendant, pendulous, penthouse, dependable, independent, perpendicular, appendage, appendix, suspend, suspense, pensive, pansy, ponderous, preponderance, pound
pēnis pene- penis pencil, penis, penetrate, penicillin
poena pena- debt, penalty, deficiency penalty, penal, neutropenia, pancytopenia, osteopenia
per per- through, by means of per, per se, percent, percentage, percentile, permutation, perpendicular
persōna persona- mask, character person, personal, personnel, impersonate, persona non grata
petō peta- aim at, go toward petition, petulant, appetite, compete, impetus, perpetual, repeat, centripetal
pictus pictu- colored, tattooed picture, picturesque, pictogram, pigment, depict, paint, pinto, pint
pilus pili- hair pili, pileated, capillary, capillariasis
pīnus pine- pine, pinecone pine, pineal, pinyon, pinot
pinna pinna- feather, wing, fin pinna, pinnae, pinnate, pinnacle, pinniped, pen, pennate, panache
pirum piri- pear piriform, piriformis
piscis pisci- fish piscis, piscine, piscatorial, piscivore, pisces
placeō placi- please, pleasant placid, placebo, placate, complacent, plea, please, plead
plānus plano- level, flat plain plan, plane, planar, planaria, planula, piano, explain, multiplanar
planta planta- sole of foot plant, plantar, plantigrade, planted, plantation, implant, explant, transplant
plaudō plosi- strike, clap plaudit, applaud, explode, implode, explosion, plosive
plēnus pleni- full, plenty plenary, plenty, plenum, replenish, terreplein
plicō plico- fold, pleat plicae, plait, pliant, plexus, complicate, explicate, explicit, implicit, multiply, duplicate, triple, applied, plywood, replicate, plexiglas, perplexed, complex, complexion
plūs plu- more, plural plus, plural, pluperfect, nonplus, surplus
plumbum plumbo- lead, bullet, pipe plumb, plumbum, plumbing, plumbism
pālus pola- stake, pole pole, polar, polarity, bipolar, circumpolar, dipole, nonpolar
pollex pollici- thumb pollicis, pollex
pollen pollina- fine flour, meal pollen, pollinate, pollinator, pollinosis
pōns ponti- bridge pons, pontic, pontine, pontiff, pontifex, pontoon, pontobulbar, cerebellopontine, transpontine, punt
poples popliteu- back of the knee popliteus, popliteal
porca porci- sow, pig porcine, porcupine, pork, porpoise, porcelain, aardvark
portō porta- carry, convey, bring port, portal, portable, porter, deport, import, portfolio, report, support, transport
positus positi- situated, placed pose, positive, position, deposit, opposite, composite, transposition, exponent, expository, compound
post post- behind, after postpone, post mortem, posterior, postganglionic, posthumous
potēns potenti- capable, powerful potent, potency, potential, potentiation, impotent, omnipotent, totipotent, possess, possible, power
prae pre- in front, before precox, precocious, prefrontal, predetermined, prenuptial, prenatal, premature, premie
praedor predatio- plunder, raid, seize prey, predator, predation, prehensile, apprehend, comprehend, osprey, spree
pressus pressu- pressed press, pressure, pregnant, print, depression, impressive, compression, repress, supress, oppress
prīmum prima- first prime, primal, primative, primate, primary, primogeniture, primeval, primavera, prince, principle, principal
prīvātus priva- individual, private privy, privilege, privacy, private, deprive
probō probi- prove, show, examine probe, problem, probability, probate, probative, prove, proof, approval
proprius proprio- one's own proper, property, proprium, proprioception, proprietary, appropriate, impropriety
proximus proxima- nearest, next proxy, proximal, proximate, proximity, approximate
prūriō pruri- itch, burn pruritis, prurient, prurigo
pūbēns pube- full-grown, ripe puberty, pubic, prepubescent
pulmō pulmo- lung pulmonary, pulmonic
pulsō pulsa- batter, knock, strike pulse, pulsion, pulsatile, impulse, compulsion, repel, expel, propeller, retropulsion
pulvīnar pulvina- seat of honor, cushion pulvinar, pulvinus, pulvillus
pūnctum puncta- point, dot punctate, punctual, puncture, punctuation, punctilious, pungent, point, pointillism, endpoint
pūpa pupa- doll, child pupil, pupa, puppy, puppet
pūrus pura- clear, purged, cleansed pus, purulent, purify, pure, puritan, purge, purine, suppurative, putrefaction
purpura purpura- purple purpura, purple
putō puta- prune, settle, think over putamen, putative, amputate, compute, dispute, impute, repute

Q q

Root Stem Meaning Examples
quattuor quad- four, fourth quadrant, quadrilateral, quadriceps, quadratic, quadrivium, quadrille, quadroon, quarantine, quaternary, quaternion, quart, quartile, quarter, quartic, square
quantum quanti- amount, how much quantify, quantitative, quantity
quercus querc- oak, cork quercus, cork, corkage, corker, corkscrew
quiēs quie- rest, quiet, sleep quiet, quiescent, acquiesce, requiem, requiescat
quīnque quint- five, fifth quintet, quintessence, quintuplets, quintic, quincunx, quinate
quot quot- how many, how often quote, quotation, quotidian, quotient, quotition, aliquot

R r

Root Stem Meaning Examples
racēmus racemi- cluster of grapes, bunch raceme, racemic, racemize, racemose
radius radi- stick, rod radius, radian, radial, radium, radiate, radiator, radiation, radio, radiotherapy, radionuclide, radiology, radiograph
rādīx radica- root, radish radix, radical, radicand, radicle, radiculopathy, radish
rādō radu- scrape, shave, scratch radula, rash, rasorial, razor, abrade, abrasion, erase
rāmus rami- branch ramose, ramus, rami, ramification, ramapithecus
rapiō rapto- seize, rape, plunder rape, rapacious, rapt, rapture, raptor, velociraptor
ratus ratio- settled rate, proportion rate, ratio, ratify, rational, prorated, reason
rēs re- thing re, real, realia, reality, realize, republic, rebus
regō, rēctus regi- rule, keep straight, right rex, regent, regimen, regicide, regulate, regular, rectangle, rectum, rectify, rectilinear, correct, direction, directrix, erect, ruler, rule, royal, anorexia
rēnēs rena- kidneys renal, reniform, renin, adrenal, adrenalin, adrenergic, suprarenal
rēptō repti- creep, crawl reptile, reptilian
rēte rete- snare, net, network rete, retina, reticular, reticulocyte, reticulum
retrō retro- backwards, behind retrograde, retrospect, retroverted, retrobulbar
rigor rigo- stiffness, hardness rigid, rigidity, rigor mortis, rigorous
rīvus riva- stream, brook river, rivulet, derive, derivative
rōdō rode- gnaw, corrode rodent, corrode, erode, erosion, rostrum
rōstrum rostra- beak, bill, prow rostrum, rostral, adrostral
rota rota- wheel, disk rotate, rotation, rotatory, rotary, rotifer, rotavirus, rotor, rotund, round, rodeo
ruber rubro- red rubor, rubrospinal, rubella, ruby, rubidium, bilirubin
rūga ruga- wrinkle, crease rugal, rugae, rugose, corrugated
rūminō rumina- chew the cud rumen, rumination, ruminant
rumpō ruptu- break, violate rumpus, rupture, abrupt, bankrupt, corrupt, disrupt, erupt, interrupt

S s

Root Stem Meaning Examples
saccus sac- bag, purse, wallet sac, saccule
sacrum sacro- holy thing, shrine sacred, sacrum, sacral, consecrate, sacrosanct, sacrament, sacrifice, sacrilegious
sagitta sagitta- arrow sagittal, sagittate, sagittarius
sāl sali- salt, brine saline, saliva, salivary, salary, salt, salsa, salami, saltpeter, cum grano salis
saltō salta- leap, dance salacious, salient, saltation, saltatory, saltigrade, resilient, resilin, result, insult, somersault
salūs salu- health, welfare salutation, salute, salvation, salvage
sanguis sangu- blood sanguine, sanguinary, sangfroid, sangria, exsanguinate
sānus sani- healthy, sound, sane sane, sanity, sanitation, sanitarium, insanity, mens sana in corpore sano
sapiēns sapi- wise, man of taste sapiens, sapient, sapid, savory, savant, savvy, insipid
sartor sartori- tailor, mender sartorius, sartorial
satelles satelli- attendant, assistant satellite, microsatellite
satis sati- enough, sufficient satisfy, satiate, satiety, satire, saturate, unsaturated, supersaturated
scāla scala- scale, ladder scale, scalar, escalate
scandō scande- climb, ascend scan, scandent, scansorial, ascend, descend, transcend
scientia scienti- knowledge, skill science, scientific, scientist, omniscience, pseudoscience, conscience, plebiscite, prescient
scissus scissi- split, cut scissors, chisel, decide, incise, incision, excise, incisura, abscissa, abscission, circumcision, precise
scorbutus scorbu- scurvy scurvy, scorbutic, ascorbic
scrībō script- write, draw scribble, scribe, script, scripture, describe, inscription, circumscribe, manuscript, prescribe, subscribe, postscript
scūtum scutu- shield scutum, scutellum, scutigera, escutcheon
sēbum sebo- grease, tallow sebum, sebaceous, seborrhea
sēcrētus secreti- separate, private secrete, excrete, secret, segregate, secretin, secretagogue, discrete
sectus secti- cut sect, section, sector, segment, set, bisect, resect, dissect, insect, intersect, secant,
secundus secund- following, next second, secundum
sedeō seda- sit, lie low sedate, sedative, sedentary, sessile, session, reside, resident, residue, president, insidious, assiduous
sella sella- chair, seat, saddle sella, suprasellar
sēmi- semi- half semicircle, semicircular, semimajor, semimonthly
sēmen semina- seed semen, seminar, seminary, seminiferous, seminal, seminoma, seminuria, insemination, disseminate
senex sene- old, elderly senex, senescence, senile, senior, senate, senator, sir, sire
sēnsus sensa- feeling, sense sense, sensation, sensory, scent, sentient, sentiment, sentence, consent, dissent, resent
septem septa- seven september, septet, septaguint, septuple
sēparō septu- separate, divide septum, septation, separate, inseparable, separatism
sequor seque- follow, go with sequence, sequential, sequel, non sequitur, consecutive, consequence, segue, suture, sew, suit
seriēs seri- silk, web, row series, serial, sericulture, serigraph, serine, sericin
serra serra- saw serrate, serratiform, biserrate, sierra
serum seru- whey, watery fluid serum, serous, serosa, serology, seronegative, seroconversion, serotonin, antisera
sīdereus sidero- starry, radiant sidereal, siderostat, siderosis, hemosiderin
signō signa- mark, stamp signal, sign, signature, significant, signet, designate
silex silico- flint, rock silex, silicon, silicosis, silicate, silane, in silico
sīmius simi- ape simian, prosimian
similis simili- similar simile, similar, similarity, simulation, assimilate
simplex simpli- single, simple simplex, simple, simplify, simplicity
sinus sino- curve, bay, cove sinus, sinoatrial, sine, sinusoidal, cosine, insinuate
situs situ- situation, site in situ, situs, situation, site
sociō socio- unite, associate social, sociology, society, associate, dissociate
sōl sola- sun sol, solar, solarium, solstice, solanaceae, parasol
solea sole- sandal, sole, shoe soleus, sole, insole
sōlus solo- only, alone solo, solitude, solitary, desolate, soliloquy, solipsism
solvō solu- loosen, undo, free soluble, solute, solve, solution, absolute, dissolve, resolve, resolution, soil
somniō somni- dream, sleep somnolent, insomnia
sonō sono- sound, make noise sonar, sonographic, sonorous, sonolucent, sonata, resonate, dissonant, consonant, sound, resound, unison
sorbeō sorba- suck in, swallow sorbent, sorbital, adsorb, absorb, absorption, resorb
soror sorora- sister sorority, sororal
speciēs specu- sight, appearance, form spectacle, speculum, speculate, spectrum, special, species, specimen, specification, inspect, interspecific, perspective, retrospective
spīca spica- ear of grain, spike spicule, spica, conspicuous, spike
spīna spina- thorn, spine spine, spinal, spiny, cerebrospinal
spīritus spiro- breath, air, courage spirit, spiral, spiracle, spirometry, spirochete, transpire, aspire, aspirate, inspire, expire, respiration, perspiration, leptospirosis
spūtō sputu- spit out sputum, sputter
squāma squamo- flat scale squamous, squamate, desquamated
stāmen stamina- warp, upright thread stamen, stamina, stem
stannum stanno- tin stannum, stannous, stannic, stannary
stapes stape- stirrup stapes, stapedial
status statu- state, position status, stately, state, stance, station
stēlla stella- star stellar, stellate, constellation
stercus sterco- dung, excrement stercoral, stercobilin
sterilis sterili- barren, sterile sterilization, sterile
stimulus stimu-, -stinct goad, sting, spur stimulus, stimulate, sting, distinguish, extinguish, extinct, instinct, instigate
strātum strata- layer, cover stratum, strata, stratified, stratigraphy, stratosphere, biostratigraphy, substrate, strewn
stria stria- stripe, scallop striated, striae, striatum
stringō strictu- draw tight strict, stricture, restriction, constrict, astringent, string, strain, constraint
strīdor strido- hissing, squeaking stridor, strident
struō structio- build, pile up structure, construct, obstruct, ultrastructure, destruction, misconstrue, instruct, industry
studium studio- enthusiasm, zeal student, studious, study, studio, etude
sub sub- under, beneath substitution, subclinical, subscript, subset, subtend, subtract, subway, supine
sūdō sudo- sweat, perspire sudoriferous, sudomotor, sudatorium, sudoresis, exude, exudate
sūs sui- pig, boar sus, suidae, suet, swine, sow
sulcus sulci- furrow, trench sulcus, sulci, sulcate, sulcomarginal
summus summa- utmost, total, height summa cum laude, summit, summary, summation, sum
super super- above, on top super, superior, supreme, superimpose, superscript, supermodel, superlative, soprano

T t

Root Stem Meaning Examples
tabula tabula- board, tablet tabula, tabulate, tablet, tabloid, tab
tāctus tacti- touch, handling tact, tactile, tactics, tangent, tangential, tangible, myotactic, contact, intact, contingent
tālus talo- ankle, heel talus, talonavicular, talon, talipes
tardus tardi- slow, late tardy, tardigrade, tardive, retarded
temperō tempera- mix in, moderate temperate, temperature, temper, tempered, distemper
tempus tempo- time, pulse tempo, temple, temporary, temporal, temporalis
tendō teno- stretch, extend, hold tenet, tenure, tenacious, tentacle, tendon, tendinous, tension, tensile, tenesmus, sustentacular, extend, extension, extent, subtend, detention, abstinence, maintain, tentorium
terra terra- land, earth terra firma, terracotta, terrain, terrene, terrace, terraform, terrarium, terrestrial, territory, terrier, subterranean, mediterranean, extraterrestrial
testis testi- witness, give evidence test, testis, testify, testimony, testicular, testosterone, testament, attest, contest
textus text- texture, weave texture, textile, text, tissue, context, pretext
tībia tibia- flute, pipe, shinbone tibia, tibial, tibialis, tibiotarsal
tingō tinctu- dye, soak in color tincture, tinctorial, tint, taint, tinge
tinnītus tinni- ringing, jingle tinnitus, tintinnabulation
tōphus tophu- soft stone tophus, tufa, tuff
torqueō tortu- turn, twist, wind torque, torcular, tort, torture, tortuous, torsion, torso, torticollis, retort, contortion, extortion, distortion
tōtus tota- entire, whole total, totality, totipotent, totalitarian, factotum, tutti frutti, in toto
trabis trabe- beam, timber trabecular, trabeated, architrave
tractus tractio- pulled, drawn tract, tractor, traction, attract, extract, protractor, protracted, contract, retract, subtraction, drag, draw
trāns trans- across, through transit, transition, transfer, transmembrane, transverse, transform, translation, transposition
trēs tri-, ter- three, third trio, triangle, triple, triquetral, trimester, trivia, trinomia, ternary, tertiary, tercel
tribuō tribu- assign, divide among tribes tribe, tribal, tributary, distribute, attribute
truncō trunca- lop off, mutilate truncus, truncate, trunk
trūdō trusi- push, thrust intrude, extrude, extrusion, obtrusive, abstruse, detrusor
tūber tubero- swelling, lump tuber, tuberous, tubercle, tuberculosis, tuberculoma, protuberance, truffle
tubus tubo- pipe, tube tube, tubal, tubocurarine, tuba
tumor tume- swelling, bulge tumor, tumescent, tumefaction, detumescence
turbō turbi- disturb, confuse turbid, turbulence, turbinate, disturb
turgens turgi- swollen turgor, turgid, turgidity
tussis tussi- cough tussive, pertussis, antitussive, robitussin

U u

Root Stem Meaning Examples
ubīque ubiqui- everywhere, anywhere ubiquitous, ubiquinone
ulcus ulcera- sore, ulcer ulcer, ulcerated, ulceration
ulna ulna- elbow, arm, ell ulna, ulnar, ell
ulterior ultra- farther, beyond ultimate, ultimatum, ultraviolet, ultrasound, ulterior, penultimate, antepenultimate
umbilīcus umbilica- navel umbo, umbilicus, umbilical, nombril, periumbilical
umbra umbro- shadow, shade umbra, umber, umbel, umbelliferous, umbrella, umbrage, penumbra
uncus unco- hook, weight uncinate, uncial, uncus, ounce, inch, quincunx
undō undu- surge, wave, roll undulate, undulation, abundant
ungula ungula- nail, claw, hoof unguis, ungulate, unguligrade, periungual
ūnus uni- one, only unit, unity, unique, universe, union, uniform, unilateral, triune
urbis urba- city, Rome urban, urbane, urbanization, suburbia, urbi et orbi
ursa ursi- bear ursine, ursa major
uterus utero- womb uterus, uterine, utricle, intrauterine
ūva uva- grape, cluster uvea, uveitis, uvula, pyruvate

V v

Root Stem Meaning Examples
vacca vacca- cow vaccinia, vaccination, vaccine
vacuus vacu- empty, void, wanting vacuum, vacuole, vacuous, vacant, vacation, evacuate, void, devoid
vāgīna vagina- sheath, husk vagina, vaginal, invaginate, evagination
vagus vago- wandering, unsettled vagus, vagal, vagotomy, vagrant
valeō vale- be strong, worthy valor, value, valid, validity, valedictorian, valence, valerian, valeric, valine, equivalence, evaluate, prevail, available
valva valva- folding door valve, valvular
variō vari- change, diversify variable, variation, variegated, variolation, varicella
varix varico- swollen vein varices, varicose, varix
vās vaso- vessel, duct vas, vasa, vasorum, vasovagal, vasodilation, vasoconstriction, vascular, extravasation
vehō, vector vecto- carry, carrier vector, vehicle, vehement, conveyor, convection, inveigh
vēlōx velo- swift, fast velocity, velociraptor, velocipede
vēlum velo- sail, curtain velum, velar, veliger, velamen
venus venera- charm, beauty, worship venerate, venerable, venereal, venus, venom, vanadium
vēna veno- vein, course vena, venous, vein, venule, venation, venotomy, venipuncture, intravenous
ventus venti- wind vent, ventilate, ventilation
venter ventra- stomach, belly venter, ventral, ventricle, ventriculitis, ventriloquism, biventer, eventration
verbum verba- word, saying verb, verbatim, verbose, verbal, verve, adverb, cruciverbalist, proverb
vēritās veri- truth, reality verity, very, verdict, verify, verisimilitude, aver, voir dire
vermis vermi- worm vermis, vermiform, vermin, vermicelli, vermiculite, vermillion
vertō verte- turn, change verse, vs, vice versa, versatile, vertex, vertical, vertigo, vertebra, verge, vortex, vorticella, adverse, anniversary, avert, controversy, convert, diverticulum, evert, extrovert, inverse, pervert, reverse, subversive, transverse, universe
vēsīca vesico- bladder, purse vesical, vesicular, vesicoureteral
vestibulum vestibu- entrance, forecourt vestibule, vestibular
vestīgium vestigi- trace, footprint, sign vestige, vestigial, investigate
via via- way, road via, viaduct, voyage, envoy, deviate, deviant, deviation, previous, trivium, quadrivium, obvious, previous
vibrō vibra- shake, vibrate vibration, vibratory, vibrio
villus villa- hair, fleece villus, villi, villous, microvilli
vir viri- man, husband, virtue virile, virilization, virtue, virtual, werewolf
vīrus viru- slime, poison virus, virulent, viral, retrovirus, oncovirus
viscus visce- internal organs, bowels viscus, viscera, visceromotor, viscerosensory, viscerotonia
vīsō visi- survey, look at visible, vision, view, visa, visage, vista, voyeur, evident, television, revise, clairvoyant, envy, interview, review, survey
vitellus vitelli- calf, yolk veal, vellum, vitellus, vitelline
vitrum vitro- glass in vitro, vitreous, vitrine
vīvus vivo- alive, living vivo, vivid, vivify, viviparous, vivisection, vivacious, vital, vitae, vitalism, viable, vitamin, viatical, survive, revival, convivial, modus vivendi
vocō voca- call, summon vox, vocal, vocation, vowel, advocate, equivocal, convocation, evoke, provoke
volvō volu- roll, bring around volvulus, volume, volute, volvox, involve, involute, involucrum, revolve, evolve, evolution, envelope, development
vōmer vomer- plowshare vomer, vomeronasal, vomerine
vorāx vora- ravenous, consuming voracious, carnivore, carnivorous, herbivore, omnivore, frugivore, insectivore
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